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Reducing School Bullying Behavior: Part 2
The previous article in this set provided basic advice for educators
and parents who are beset by bullying behaviors that occur within
school and/or via social media venues. It suggested that the best basic
advice is to create a pleasant accepting environment in which all
students feel valued. This reduces the need that some students feel to
use bullying behavior to enhance their own self-esteem, and it empowers
non-bullied observers to come to the defense of the bullied.
Bullying is a Worldwide Problem
Bullying comes from a combination of nature and nurture. You know about
alpha male and alpha female in a variety of animal species. In a wolf
pack, for example, the alpha male “earns” the right to mate with the
females. The alpha female, through bullying subordinate females, works
to ensure that females who are practically her equal will not use their
reproductive capacity to attract the attention of the alpha male.
Bullying related to sexual reproduction is inherent in many species.
Human bullying is a worldwide problem. The following special issue of
the Journal of Social Sciences
is devoted to bullying:
Journal of Social Sciences (2005). Peer
victimization in schools: An
international perspective. Special
Volume: Journal of Social Sciences:
Interdisciplinary Reflection of Contemporary Issues. See http://www.krepublishers.com/
Quoting from this publication:
This special issue has an
international focus, with researchers providing information on bullying
around the world. There has been an unprecedented increase in the study
of bullying among school children worldwide. The continuous study of
bullying has become necessary because in spite of public exposure,
therapeutic interventions, penalties, etc., incidents of bullying are
increasing at an alarming rate in the past decade. This special issue
is an effort to provide increased knowledge to readers/ practitioners
about bullying, and prescribe better intervention strategies for its
amelioration in the school system and society at large.
The following article summarizes the worldwide concern about this
AFT (5/7/2012). Students around the world stand against bullying.
American Federation of Teachers. See
Quoting from the article:
Worldwide participation was promoted by Education
International and the Canadian Teachers' Federation. International
locations where students participated included: Abu Dhabi, Armenia,
Belize, Cambodia, Canada, Chile, China, Costa Rica, England, Finland,
France, Hong Kong, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Japan,
Mexico, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain,
Sweden, Taiwan, Thailand, and Wales.
Bullying in the Home
Many children live in homes where they routinely witness or
participate in bullying. Here are two articles that provide an
introduction to this topic:
KidsHealth (n.d.). Teaching kids not to bully. See http://kidshealth.org/parent/emotions/behavior/no_bullying.html#.
Menesini, E. (n.d.). Is bullying learned at home?
Quoting from the first article:
When looking for the influences on your child's
behavior, look first at what's happening at home. Kids who live with
yelling, name-calling, putdowns, harsh criticism, or physical anger
from a sibling or parent/caregiver may act that out in other settings.
Quoting from the second article:
General Research on Bullying
We recently carried out a study of 195 children,
aged 10-12 years, all of whom had a brother or sister who were up to 4
years younger or older than themselves. We found that the presence of
bullying and victimization is as strong among siblings as among peers.
The problem seems even more worrisome at home.
- Children reported higher bullying and victimization at home and
higher victimization by older brothers. Respectively, 38.4% and 34.4%
reported bullying and victimization experiences at home, with
particularly higher levels of bullying boys (48.9%). By contrast, lower
levels of bullying and victimization were reported in school: 17.1% and
23.2%, respectively. Thus, we can assume that at home it is more common
to reciprocate attacks and fights among siblings, as the relationship
is more intimate and less affected by the risk of loosing the
relationships, as compared to interactions with peers or within
- We also found a significant correlation between sibling and
school bullying and victimization, in that some children who were
bullies or victims at home seemed to maintain their roles at school.
There is a large and growing collection of research about
bullying. The following references focus on the kinds of useful
information available on the Internet. In most cases, the references
will lead you to the sources of information, and these will lead you to
specific research and advice:
American Psychological Association. School bullying is nothing new, but psychologists identify new ways to prevent it. See http://www.apa.org/research/action/bullying.aspx.
Association for Middle Level Education. Bullying: NMSA Research Summary. See http://www.amle.org/research/researchsummaries/bullying/tabid/709/default.aspx.
Community Oriented Policing Services. US Department of Justice. Bullying in Schools. See http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/Publications/e07063414-guide.pdf.
Cyberbullying Research Center. See http://www.cyberbullying.us/.
Education.com. Research on cyberbullying. Key findings, practical suggestions. http://www.education.com/reference/article/cyberbullying-research/.
Education Week. Transforming learning: Finding the middle ground on bullying. See http://tatepublishing.com/bookstore/book.php?w=9781620241943.
Education Week. LA use of peer courts to deal with bullying and hate crimes. See http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2012/07/23/37mct_cateencourt.h31.html?
ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center). Research on school bullying and victimization: What have we learned, and where do we go from here? See http://www.eric.ed.gov:80/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&
First Amendment Center. Harassment, bullying, and free expression: Guidelines for free and safe public schools. See http://www.firstamendmentcenter.org/
National Bullying Prevention Center. Research findings and applications. See http://www.pacer.org/bullying/?gclid=COzE8sqS3rECFWk0QgodlQMA3g.
National Conference of State Legislatures. Research and reports. See http://www.education.com/topic/school-bullying-teasing/.
Practice Central. American Psychological Association. Research roundup: Cyberbullying. See http://www.apapracticecentral.org/update/2010/03-31/cyberbullying.aspx.
Ryan, T. and Kariuki, M. (2011). A two-year
comparative analysis of cyberbullying perceptions of Canadian (Ontario)
pre-service educators. Journal on the Research Center for Educational Technology (vol 7, no 2).
Amazon.com books: School bullying. See http://www.amazon.com/s/ref=nb
Amazon.com books: Cyberbullying. See http://www.amazon.com/s/ref=nb
ASCD professional books: Classroom management, safe schools. See http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/browse-by-topic.aspx#Safe_Schools.
Corwin Press professional books: Bully prevention. See http://www.corwin.com/topics/C21.
Corwin Press books: Conflict resolution. See http://www.corwin.com/topics/C26.
Halter, L. (2012 ) Marriage and your brain: A couple’s guide to stress, conflict resolution, and neuroscience. Mustang, OK: Tate Publishing. One chapter, Plays well with others, is related to the issue of bullying behavior). See http://tatepublishing.com/bookstore/book.php?w=9781620241943.
Scholastic Press books: Professional and student books on bullying. See http://www.scholastic.com/parents/search/tags?tag=bullying.
Teachers College Press. See http://store.tcpress.com/0807749532.shtml.
Professional Development: On-Line Resources
The ASCD Express
provides a wide amount of useful information on a variety of issues. The March 13, 2011 (volume 6, issue 13) issue focused on How to stop bullying
. It’s an exceptionally well-done issue. See http://www.ascd.org/ascd-express/vol6/613-toc.aspx
Initiative against bullying and violence is a Chicago church/community
program that addresses the pervasive issues of violence and its impact
on community children, families, teens, and seniors. Anti-bullying
efforts promote awareness from school children to home-bound older
adults. It equips participants with tools to resolve conflict. See http://www.wheatridge.org/initiativeagainstbullyingandviolence/
Wiredkids. Stop cyberbullying
. See http://www.stopcyberbullying.org/
Professional Development Programs
ASCD Speakers Bureau. See http://www.p21.org/events-aamp-news/speakers-bureau
Corwin Press. For speakers who focus on the topic of classroom management, bullying, and cyberbullying see http://www.corwinpressspeakers.com/TopicDetail.aspx
Solution Tree Press. Aaron Hansen, John Hoover, and David Levine do staff development programs on school bullying. See http://www.solution-tree.com/
Bullying is a worldwide problem people face at home, at school,
at work, and at play. It is a problem that can be attacked through what
each of us does individually in our interactions with other people.
Those of us who work with groups of people have a special opportunity
to help others learn that bullying is an unacceptable form of
individual and group behavior.
The above ideas and links provided in this IAE Newsletter should get
you started. We’re sure that you know enough about Internet search
engines to dig deeper into this increasingly useful set of tools, and
to locate the specific focus on the issues of school and social
bullying that concern you.
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